Either Geographic Information Systems (GIS) or Geographic Information Science (GIScience) has the same two words: ‘geographic’ and ‘information’. These two words show that the term GIS and GIScience relate to the results of the analysis of spatial data, and not just raw data. Spatial data that is acquired, stored, and used for various purposes requires an analysis tool, both technical and disciplines behind the process. In technical terms, data analysis is performed by tool or computer software. GIS is in this part. The word ‘systems’ is the core of this term refers to a technical management of spatial data that form relationships to each other. In practical terms, GIS is a set of computer tools that allows people to work with data that are tied to a particular location on Earth (Price 2006) which can be used to identify spatial differences, to do a retrospective analysis, and to help people make policies (Enders and Brandt 2007).
In GIS, the software is very important to analyze the raw data in order to produce new information used for a variety of purposes. On the other hand, GIScience is the role of science such as mathematics, political science, sociology, anthropology, health science, biology, geology, environment, and others in analyzing and resolving problems associated with spatial information of the work involves GIS software. From ‘Problem Identification’ to ‘Problem Analysis’, there is a framework of reference to perform such scientific process. Experts from one or more disciplines identify the problems that exist on the surface of the earth, both physical and social (Wright, Michael F. Goodchild, and James D. Proctor 1997). Furthermore, based on assumptions, the experts determine the spatial data that is needed to help them to solve problems. Hence, involving disciplines in analyzing a particular spatial problem using certain geographic information make this subject become a science.